Hugo, Victor

Hugo, Victor
   poet, novelist, playwright
   victor Hugo, whose voluminous works provided the single greatest impetus to the romantic movement in France, was born in Besançon, the son of one of napoleon's generals. Along with his mother and brothers, Hugo followed his father to italy and spain before returning to Paris, where he took up writing ("i want to be Chateaubriand, or nothing"). He married Adèle Foucher, dedicating to her his Odes et Ballades (1822-28), in which he attempted to reconcile the classical and romantic styles. This was followed by his novels Hans d'Islande (1823) and Bug-Jargal (1824). Then, in his Préface de Cromwell (1827), he emerged as the leader of the romantics. in Orientales(1829), Hugo defended the principle of artistic freedom, an idea that quickly became the manifesto of the romantic movement and culminated in his poetic drama, Hernani (1830), which had a tumultuous premiere and ensured the success of romanticism. it was later adapted by Giuseppe Verdi for his opera Ernani (1844). Hugo's social and humanitarian concerns were expressed in Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné (1829), and he became a voice for moral and political, as well as literary, ideas. The period from 1829 to 1843 was the most productive of Hugo's career. His great historical novel, Notre-Dame de Paris (1831) was a tale set in 15th-century Paris. It made him extremely popular and brought him election to the Académie Française (1841). Another novel of this period, Claude Gueux (1834), was an eloquent indictment of the French penal and social systems. Hugo also wrote several well-received volumes of lyric poetry, including Les feuilles d'automne (1831), Les chants du crépuscule (1837), and Les Rayons et les Ombres (1840). His dramatic successes include Le roi s'amuse (1832), which was the basis for Verdi's Rigoletto (1851); the prose drama Lucrèce Borgia (1833); and a melodrama, Ruy Blas (1838). The failure of his next work, Les Burgraves (1843), and the death of his daughter in that same year caused him to turn from writing and to take a more active role in politics. Raised as a Bonapartist, Hugo had become a royalist and was made a peer in 1845 by King louis-philippe. But by the time of the revolution of 1848, he had become a republican. In 1851, in the aftermath of the unsuccessful revolt against President Louis-Napoleon, Hugo fled to Belgium and, in 1855, began a 15-year exile on the island of Guernsey. While in exile, he composed scurrilous verse satire and also completed his longest and most famous work, Les Misérables (1862). Hugo returned to France in 1870 and resumed his role in politics; he was elected to the National Assembly and later to the senate. Among the most notable of his later works are L'Art d'être grand-père (1877) and Quatre Vents de l'esprit (1881). All of Hugo's works have set the standard for generations of French youth, and he is still considered one of France's greatest poets. After his death on May 22, 1885, he was given a state funeral, his body lying in state under the arc de triomphe and later borne, in accordance with his wishes, on a pauper's hearse for internment in the Panthéon.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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  • Hugo, Victor — Hugo, Victor, Victor, das Haupt der romantischen Schule, einer der genialsten Dichter Frankreichs, dessen herrliche Werke in der französischen Poesie eine neue Aera begonnen haben, wurde am 26. Febr. 1892 geb., kräftigte seine Jugend unter… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Hugo, Victor — ▪ French writer Introduction in full  Victor Marie Hugo  born Feb. 26, 1802, Besançon, Fr. died May 22, 1885, Paris  poet, novelist, and dramatist who was the most important of the French Romantic writers. Though regarded in France as one of that …   Universalium

  • Hugo, Victor — (1802–1885)    Among the greatest French writers of the nineteenth century and a major contributor to French national mythology, Hugo was born on February 26, the son of Léopold Hugo, a general in Napoleon ’s army and Sophie Trébuchet. Hugo’s… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Hugo, Victor Marie, Vicomte — (1802 1885)    The French poet, dramatist, and novelist Victor Hugo fled to Brussels in December 1851 disguised as a workman and bearing a false passport, a committed opponent of Louis Napoléon. He wrote L Histoire d un crime (The story of a… …   Historical Dictionary of Brussels

  • Hugo, Victor (-Marie) — born Feb. 26, 1802, Besançon, France died May 22, 1885, Paris French poet, dramatist, and novelist. The son of a general, he was an accomplished poet before age 20. With his verse drama Cromwell (1827), he emerged as an important figure in… …   Universalium

  • Hugo, Victor (-Marie) — (26 feb. 1802, Besançon, Francia–22 may. 1885, París). Poeta, dramaturgo y novelista francés. Hijo de un general, ya era un poeta de tomo y lomo antes de cumplir los 20 años. Su drama en verso Cromwell (1827) lo convirtió en figura importante del …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hugo,Victor Marie — Hu·go (hyo͞oʹgō, ü gōʹ), Victor Marie. 1802 1885. French writer who went into exile after Napoleon III seized power (1851), returning to France in 1870. His novels include The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831) and Les Misérables (1862). * * * …   Universalium

  • Hugo, Victor — ► (1802 85) Escritor francés, máxima figura del romanticismo. Llegó pronto a ser el jefe indiscutible de la escuela romántica (su prólogo al drama Cromwell, en 1827, se considera el manifiesto del romanticismo). Su republicanismo le valió el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • HUGO, VICTOR-MARIE —    a famous French poet and novelist, born at Besançon; as a boy he accompanied his father, a general in Joseph Bonaparte s army, through the campaigns in Italy and Spain; at 14 he produced a tragedy, and six years later appeared his Odes et… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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